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Barnstein in Jew. Quart Rev. An English translation has been published by Etheridge supra. Targum Yerushalmi on the Pentateuch is also called the Fragmentary targum because the Targum on the entire Pentateuch has not been preserved, but only portions of it on numerous longer and shorter passages, frequently only the Targum on individual verses or parts of such.

These fragments were first printed in the rabbinical Bible of In language, method of translation, and exegetical form they are related to the Pseudo-Jonathan.

The Targums: Aramaic Versions of the Old Testament

A Latin translation from the Venice edition of was published by Taylor London, ; English tr. Opinions concerning the connection between the Targums Jerushalmi I and Jerushalmi II agree in general that both are to be traced back to different recensions of an old Jerusalem Targum. This is the view of Zunz p. Bassfreund infra reaches the conclusion that the basis both of the Fragmentary Targum and that of the Pseudo-Jonathan is a complete Jerusalem Targum of post-Talmudic origin, but that the two Targums, Jerushalmi I and II, presuppose the existence of the Targum of Onkelos.

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The Fragmentary Targum gives from this ancient Jerusalem Targum gives from this ancient Jerusalem Targum, according to Bassfreund, only matter supplementary to Onkelos, while Onkelos and the Jerusalem Targum have been used in preparing the Pseudo-Jonathan. In the preface to his edition of the Pseudo-Jonathan see below Ginsburger tries to prove that both the Fragmentary Targum and the Pseudo-Jonathan may be traced back to a very ancient Palestinian Targum, which was not influenced by the Targum of Onkelos until a later date.

The Fragmentary Targum, in Ginsburger's opinion, represents a variant collection, not to Onkelos as Bassfreund thinks , but to another recensions of that ancient Jerusalem Targum. Ginsburger's views will have to be accepted as the more probable. Nearly all have been published by Ginsburger, Das Fragmententargum , There have also been Jerusalem Targums on the Prophets and on individual books of the Hagiographa. As regards the Targums on the Prophets de Lagarde has given Reuchlin's notes from the Nebi'im Codex in the introduction pp.

They are the work of various authors and have the character more or less of private undertakings, with the production of which the schools had nothing to do. Linguistically they are to be regarded as the work artificially produced of a late age. They depend in the main on the Jerusalem Targums and probably belong to the same era; the Targum on Chronicles may be somewhat later. Three groups are to be distinguished as regards linguistic character and relation to the original text: a Targums to Proverbs, Psalms, and Job; b Targums to the five Megilloth, that is Ruth, Esther, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Canticles; c Targums to the Books of Chronicles.

The Targums mentioned under a adhere relatively closest to the text of the Bible. The Targum to Proverbs is in language and contents very dependent on the text of the Syriac Peschitto, and is but little more than a Jewish recension of the same. Noldeke in Merx' Archiv fur wissenschaftl. Erforschung des A.

In a number of passages a second translation is introduced with the remark another Targum. The Targum to Job contains many more additions. There are also variants of the usual formula of citation, and much oftener than in the Targum on the Psalms. In style and language this Targum resembles that on the Psalms, consequently both perhaps are the work of the same author. The Targum to Ecclesiastes is a tasteless declamation upon the text on which it is based; that on Canticles is an allegorico-mystical Midrash. There are two Targums to Esther, the one closely resembles a paraphrase and has no legends interwoven with it; the other, called Targum scheni, has altogether the character of a Midrash.

It is only to a small degree a translation; the greater part of it consists of stories, legends, and discourses that have but slight connection with the contents of the book. All the Targums to the Hagiographa excepting Chronicles were printed for the first time in the Bomberg Bible in ; afterwards in the Polyglots of Antwerp, Paris, and London. A modern edition from the Bomberg text, with Chronicles from the Erfurt Codex, was edited by de Lagarde, Hagiographa chaldaice Leipzig, Anthropopathien bei Onkelos u.

Brunswick, , sqq.

Daily Data - Textual Criticism - The Aramaic Targums, Syriac Peshitta, and Latin Vulgate

Worterbuch Frankfort, Socini, No. Studien u. Kritiken Gotha, , Halle, , ch. Wissenschaft des Judentums , 96 sqq. Bibliographie , Targumim in Monatschrift fur Gesch. Wissenschaft des Judentums, XL , 1 sqq. Targume Berlin, Esther Frankfort, Johnathan Is 45 : 17 Word is savior. In Gen. In another example the Torah , Ex.

And the Word of the Lord spoke all these glorious words Targum Onkelos :. Gen 22 : 14 Abraham worships prays in the name of Word Memra - Devar. Here two YHVH are very apparent. The Fragmentary Targum of the Torah also expresses that the Word of YHVH was the Creator : The first night , when the " Word of YHVH " was revealed to the world in order to create it , the world was desolate and void , and darkness spread over the face of the abyss and the " Word of the Lord " was bright and illuminating and He called it the first night.

Fragmentary Targum Ex. The Word was also the covenant maker. Can ' t say enough In Ex. Targum Jonathan paraphrases the speaker in Ex. Pour out before Him the sighings of your heart ; Say , Elohim is our trust forever. Targum on Psalm 62 : 9. Jonathan Gen. Jerusalem Targum Ex. The first night , when the " Word of YHVH " was revealed to the world in order to create it , the world was desolate and void , and darkness spread over the face of the byss and the " Word of the Lord " was bright and illuminating and He called it the first night. For example the Noachdic covenant was between the Word and all mankind :.

The Word also made the Abrahamic covenant as Targum Onkelos also paraphrases :. And I will establish my covenant between My Word [ Memra ] and between you. It was to the Word that Jacob turned to for salvation :. Our father Jacob said : " My soul does not wait for salvation such as that wrought by Gideon , the son of Joash , for that was but temporal ; neither for a salvation like that of Samson , which was only transitory ; but for that salvation which You have promised to come , through Your Word unto Your people , the children of Israel ; for your salvation my soul hopes.

Onkelos on the Torah: Understanding the Bible Text

Targum Jonathan Gen. Targum Jonathan Is.

Targum Jonathan Hosea 1 : 7. We do not follow Kabbalah or Mysticism.

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He is widely regarded as the modern founder of the scholarly study of Kabbalah , becoming the first Professor of Jewish Mysticism at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Scholem is best known for his collection of lectures , Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism and for his biography Sabbatai Zevi , the Mystical Messiah His collected speeches and essays , published as On Kabbalah and its Symbolism , helped to spread knowledge of Jewish mysticism among non - Jews.

He was awarded the Israel Prize in and was elected president of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities in Gershom Scholem states :. The memra is not merely a linguistic device for overcoming the problem of biblical anthropomorphisms ; it has theological significance in its own right. The memra By The Late Rev. Sam Stern. Onkeles Targum , which is a translation of the Bible from Hebrew into Aramaic , uses the word memra in place of the Hebrew word dabar to denote the Word of God and also God Himself. Other translators , Rabbi Jonathan ben Uzziel and Targum Yerushalmi , also translate the " word of God ," " God ," and " me " and other words as memra ; thereby they indicate that they believe memra to be not just an ordinary word , but a special name of God.

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An early instance of this usage deals with Moses commanding the going - forward of the ark in the wilderness and then the resting of the ark , both after he prayed to God :. In the above verse , Onkeles translates the words " and believed the LORD " as " and believed in his memra. They feared God and believed in His memra and in His servant Moses. He translates this portion almost the same as Onkeles does , word for word , including " the memra of God.

Later on , as Moses began to lead the children of Israel through the wilderness toward the land of Canaan , the Bible relates their journeying with the ark of God :. In verse 36 , which tells of the ark stopping , Jonathan ben Uzziel continues to use the same word to mean the Word of God , or God :. And when the ark came to a stop the cloud surrounded them and they stood , and they did not rest until Moses stood in prayer and asked mercy from God and said , Do good to us as the memra of God with your mercy for thy nation of Israel.

And blessed is the shekinah [ restings ] among them and have mercy upon thousands of the house of Jacob and ten thousands of Israel. Targum Yerushalmi says regarding verse 35 that it is the memra of God who prevails :. When the ark was taken , Moses stood in prayer and said : Let the memra of God stand in the strength of thy army and the enemies of thy nation may run before you.

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In the following , verse 36 , Yerushalmi follows this usage :. When the ark rested , Moses bent his hands in prayer and said , Go back as the memra of God from thy anger and do good in thy mercy , and bless the tens of thousands of Israel. The First Commandment. Even in the giving of the law , in the first commandment to worship the Lord , Jonathan ben Uzziel says that the memra is present.